What is LPG?

LPG stands for Liquified Petroleum Gas. The composition of LPG is Hydrogen and Carbon, also known as Hydrocarbons. Specifically, LPG consists of a combination of Propane (C3H8 ), and Butane ( C4H10).
LPG can be obtained as a co-product of refining of crude oil at refineries, or extracted from streams of natural gas from oil and gas fields. Propane and Butane are both gases in ambient conditions but can be liquified under modest pressure and temperature conditions. Furthermore, LPG can safely and easily be stored at room temperature.

Properties of Propane and Butane

Properties Commercial Butane Commercial Propane
Calorific Values – Gross (BTU / lb) 21200 21500
Calorific Values – Net (BTU / lb) 19700 19900
Relative Density of liquid at 15°C 0.57 – 0.58 0.50 – 0.51
imperial Gallons / ton at 15°C 385-393 439-448
Liter / tonne at 15°C 1,723 – 1,760 1,965 – 2,019
Relative density compared to air at 15°C and 1 Bar (14.7 psi) 1.90 - 2.10 1.40– 1.55
Calorific Values – Gross (BTU / lb) 21200 21500
Imperial Gallons / ton at 15°C) 385 – 393 439 - 448
Relative Density of liquid at 15°C) 0.57 - 0.58 0.50 - 0.51
Liter / tonne at 15°C) 1,723 – 1,760 1,965 – 2,019
Relative density compared to air at 15°C and 1 Bar (14.7 psi) 1.90 – 2.10 1.40 – 1.55
Volume of gas (liters) per kg of liquid at 15°C and 1 Bar (14.7 psi)) 406 – 431 537 - 543
Volume of gas (ft³) per lb ofliquid at 15°C and 1 Bar (14.7 psi) 6.5 – 6.9 8.6 – 8.7
Sulphur Content Negligible to 0.02 Negligible to 0.02
Limits of Flammability (%age by volume of gas-air mixture to 1.8 – 8.4 2.4 – 9.5
Air Required for combustion (ft³ to burn 1 ft³ of gas at STP) 30 24

Benefits of LPG

  • LPG is a very clean burning fuel, with lower greenhouse gas emissions than any other fossil fuel when measured on a total fuel cycle, and is thus considered an environment friendly fuel source. It is also non-toxic and will not contaminate soil or aquifiers in the event of a leak.
  • The energy content and calorific value per unit of LPG is higher than many other commonly used fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, petrol, fuel oils, and biomass-derived alcohols.

  • Due to its versatile nature, LPG is used in more than a thousand
    applications, from cooking, heating, air conditioning, and automobiles, to
    aerosol propellant and foam manufacturing. It is also used to create SNG or
    Synthetic Natural Gas..

  • Transportation and storage of LPG is relatively easy, and it can be used
    virtually anywhere. It does not require a fixed network and will not
    deteriorate over time.

  • LPG is easily interchangable with natural gas and thus a good backup fuel for the industry in times of natrual gas shortages. When used as SNG, it does not need any changes in pipeline network or sizes, and provides the convenience of switching between natural gas and LPG without modifying appliances.